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Posted May 19, 2017 - 10:04am

The double parashah Behar-Bechukotai is filled primarily with the laws concerning the Shemitah (the Sabbath year), the Yovel (Jubilee), and the laws of redemption, although many other topics are covered as well. While detailing the laws of the Yovel (25:8–22), the Torah gives us a broad commandment:

You shall not wrong one another, but you shall fear your God, for I am the LORD your God. (Leviticus 25:17)

In the immediate context, this admonition is given in regard to the fair pricing of property in context of the Jubilee year, as it stated just a few verses previously, “If you make a sale to your neighbor or buy from your neighbor, you shall not wrong one another” (Leviticus 25:14). When a plot of land is purchased inside the land given to them by the LORD, its value is based on the current distance from the Jubilee year. If the Jubilee is far off, then the land will be worth more than if it is close at hand. This injunction was to ensure that the regulations for fair pricing were carried out without exception.

However, as we have seen, sometimes the Torah gives us a broad instruction so that it may be applied in various other contexts as well. This particular passage has a specific, as well as a general instruction that we can apply today. The Hebrew word behind this prohibition of wrongdoing is tonu (תונו), from the root yanah, which has the connotation of violent oppression. The sages, therefore, interpret this to mean verbal harassment. Rashi elaborates on this by saying that one should not should not use our speech to annoy our brother in any way, nor should one “give him advice that is not appropriate for him.” This first instruction from Rashi is fairly straight forward. We should never use our speech to upset another person. This includes teasing, name calling, or brow beating in any shape, form, or fashion. The second one, however, is a little more puzzling. 

Posted May 12, 2017 - 6:55am

Parashat Emor is a continuation of Parashat Kedoshim in that it resumes outlining the parameters of holiness, but this time it is directed toward the priestly service. Chapter twenty-two begins to detail the laws pertaining to voluntary offerings. In this section we have a few interesting laws describing restrictions for these sacrifices. And although they are specifically in regard to voluntary or freewill offerings, the principles are applied to any and all offerings. The first principle is that an unfit animal may not be used as a sacrifice. Since we do not have a functioning Beit Hamikdash today, this principle can often be lost in a modern context, even though one may have an understanding of this law in theory. Let’s explore this principle.

In times when the Holy Temple is functioning the supplicant was required to bring the very best of his herd or flock as his offering. He may not bring an animal that is blemished:

If it is to be accepted for you it shall be a male without blemish, of the bulls or the sheep or the goats. You shall not offer anything that has a blemish, for it will not be acceptable for you. And when anyone offers a sacrifice of peace offerings to the LORD to fulfill a vow or as a freewill offering from the herd or from the flock, to be accepted it must be perfect; there shall be no blemish in it. (Leviticus 22:19–21)

Posted May 5, 2017 - 1:52pm

This week’s double portion of Acharei Mot and Kedoshim covers a lot of ground in a small amount of space. It covers the ritual of Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), restrictions on where and how sacrifices can be made, proscriptions for the resident alien, a list of prohibited sexual relations, a stern reminder about honoring one’s parents, issues of social justice, a detailed explanation of how to love one’s neighbor, and a miscellaneous list of other commandments ranging from agricultural laws to prohibitions against sorcery and child sacrifice. Needless to say, there is a lot to absorb in this week’s dosage of Torah. Let’s take a look at one concept associated with Yom Kippur.

The focal point of the Yom Kippur service is the two goats. The first is designated as a sin offering, while the second carries with it the iniquities of the Children of Israel into the wilderness. However, most people are confused as to the purpose of the first goat. It is commonly thought that the sacrifice of this goat designated as a “sin offering” was for the purpose of removing sin from the Children of Israel. And passages in the book of Hebrews alluding to the Yom Kippur service complicate matters even further. However, if we look at the prescription for this goat within the Yom Kippur service, we find that it serves an entirely different purpose:

Then he shall kill the goat of the sin offering that is for the people and bring its blood inside the veil and do with its blood as he did with the blood of the bull, sprinkling it over the mercy seat and in front of the mercy seat. Thus he shall make atonement for the Holy Place, because of the uncleannesses of the people of Israel and because of their transgressions, all their sins. And so he shall do for the tent of meeting, which dwells with them in the midst of their uncleannesses. (Leviticus 16:15–16)

Posted April 28, 2017 - 3:21pm

This week’s Torah portion discusses two topics largely skipped over by Bibles students today: the laws of purification after child birth and biblical leprosy. These two topics are a typical cross-section of the various topics covered by the book of Leviticus and why it is largely avoided by even the most serious students of the Scriptures. However, since the LORD considered these topics important enough to populate the Holy Scriptures, we would do well to at least familiarize ourselves with them. Let’s take a brief look at the topic of biblical leprosy.

When the Torah speaks of biblical leprosy, we must keep in mind that this is not the same as modern leprosy. Modern leprosy is a bacterial infection also known as Hansen’s disease. Although it can be a debilitating disease, it is completely treatable if caught in time. Biblical leprosy, known in the Hebrew Scriptures as tzara’at, is not caused by a bacterial or viral infection, and it has no known prescriptive cure. However, it only affected one’s status of ritual purity and communal participation. Let’s take a brief look at tzara’at and a few of its appearances in the Torah.

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Latest Book Review

The Magerman Edition

Author: Daniel Rose & Jay Goldmintz
Publisher: Koren Publishers
Year: 2014

The Koren Ani Tefilla Siddur is one of the latest in Koren’s growing collection of siddurim (prayer books) geared towards a specific demographic. Koren describes Ani Tefilla as “an engaging and thought-provoking siddur for the inquiring high school student and thoughtful adult.” Koren says that Ani Tefillah has been developed in order “to help the user create their own meaning and connection during the Tefilla [prayer] experience.” The name of the siddur is connected with its objective. Ani Tefilla means “I pray.” 

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