On December 10, 2015, the Vatican issued a paper highlighting and clarifying their ongoing dialogue with Judaism. Many may have heard about this through Facebook or church organizations who immediately began criticizing the paper’s pivotal statement, which seems to be theologically opposed to the message of the gospel. Many people have assumed that the paper simply means “Jewish people don’t need Jesus.” But what exactly does it mean and how did the Catholic Church arrive at this conclusion? What I would like to do is divide the discussion into three parts: First, I would like to give a little background as to what lead to this development. Second, I would like to accurately communicate the statements made by the Catholic Church. Third, I would like to explain the significance of these statements, particularly in light of how biblical covenants work, as well as help to clear up any misunderstandings of these statements. Please keep in mind that while I am not in agreement with Roman Catholic theology or practice, it will become obvious that this paper is a watershed in Jewish-Christian relations and understandings. I can only see this aiding the Messianic-Jewish movement. I can also see this statement as marking the advent of a new era in the progression of the Kingdom of Messiah on the earth.